Later in history, Georges Braque started a new direction; cubism. Throughout the history of painting, there was no other such a great break with the classic achievements of art as was done by the Cubists. Until the arrival of Cubism, paintings were supposed to reflect reality, but Cubists wanted to define reality in a new way. They saw the object first geometrized and then broken into smaller elements of rolls, cones, balls, etc. So, the basis of cubism is the principle that the object is broken into a series of separate planes, viewed in different lighting, which is then presented side by side on canvas.
In 1915, a few years after Georges Braque and Picasso started their Cubistic movement, Kazimir Malevich painted the Black Square, which has been the basis on which abstract and conceptual art movements are widely built in our days and probably the reason we have the minimalistic style and design in architecture and furniture, to make some examples.
So, when we understand Braque, Picasso and Kazimir, we also understand why our furniture’s, cars, architecture and even cloth are more simple today, why everything we find around us is shaped into squares, circles and strict lines from toilets to cutlery.
Cubism may not directly have changed us as individuals, but the direction affected us all, including fashion designers, architects, industrial designers and more, which meant our everyday lives and our impressions were also changed and continue to be.
When Marcel Duchamp in 1917 presenting his Fountain, a urinal signed with the pseudonym “R. Mutt”, it shocked the art world but was later, in 2004 selected as “the most influential artwork of the 20th century”. From this time the term “Readymades” created a moment where everyone could expect a beautiful design in every simplest and most miserable object or material.
Thanks to this fountain, contemporary design and fine arts were created using various means of expression and forms known to us as obvious and encountered every day. No rules or directions applied any longer. Artists take full advantage of the achievements of their predecessors, and the users can enjoy various proposals for decoration, items, shapes of furniture and even cars.
Duchamp’s Fountain, in one way, became the starting point for how we behave today, where everything is allowed and where we do not need to follow specific directions or indoctrinations to be accepted. Striped pants for the dotted shirt make you avant-garde and not tasteless. You decide for yourself, partly because a French-American artist chose to break the norm and exhibit a toilet at the exhibition at The Grand Central Palace in New York in 1917.
You can fall in love with art but be aware, it affects you more than you know.